A Summary of Interactive Metronome Research                                

Academic Fluency Study


More than 1500 middle and high school
students were pre-tested using selected
subtests of the Woodcock Johnson III (WJ III)
standardized test.  The students then received
12 one-hour sessions of IM.  When the IM treatment
was complete, the students were post-tested using
the same subtests of the WJ III.
Analysis of the aggregate results showed
statistically significant increases in students’
grade equivalent (GE) performances
in the following areas:

• Reading Fluency increased by 2.25 (GE)
• Math Fluency increased by 1.7 (GE)

ADHD Study
An experimental study of 56 boys, 9 to 12 years old diagnosed with ADHD, found those undergoing IM treatment (19 subjects) showed significant improvements compared to a Control group (18 subjects) and a Video-placebo group (19 subjects). The IM group improved in 53 of 58 test scores compared to 28 of 58 and 40 of 58 for the Control and Video groups. The IM group showed statistically significant and consistent patterns of improvement in measures of attentional processes (as measured by the Test of Variables of Attention) compared to the other two groups. The differences were associated with improvements in attention, processing times of stimuli, inconsistency in response to stimuli, decreased variability in these responses and an improved TOVA ADHD score falling in a range that is expected for a normal rather than an ADHD population. Parents of IM trained ADHD boys reported a significantly different and stronger pre-post pattern of decline in aggression compared to the other two groups. IM trained subjects showed significant patterns of improvements in cognitive processing for measures of language processing (similarities and differences) and academic skills in reading than did the other two groups.(Schaffer, R. J., Jacokes, L. E., Cassily, J.F., Greenspan, S. I., Tuchman, R. F., & Stemmer, Jr., P. J. (2001). Effect of Interactive Metronome Training on Children with ADHD.  The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2: 155-162)  

Title 1 Study
A controlled study of 80 fourth and fifth grade students from *Title I schools found those who completed IM training showed significant improvements in reading and math fluency as compared to a control group that showed no improvements. 
The results from the IM group showed:   
·       Avg. Gain of 1.3 Grade in Math Fluency
·       Avg. Gain of 1.7 Grade in Reading Fluency  
*Title I is the largest federal aid program for elementary and secondary schools.

High School Academic Study
The largest public school in Florida conducted a controlled study of 360 ninth and tenth grade students to examine the correlation between improvements in students' timing and academic achievement. Post-test results showed the IM group scored significantly higher in broad reading and reading fluency as compared to the Control Group. Those students' math calculation skills, math fluency, and attention also improved significantly.

Timing in Child Development Study

A correlation study of 585 children in a public school district found significant correlations between IM score and academic performance in reading, mathematics, language, science, social studies, and study skills. The researchers concluded that timing and rhythmicity play a foundational role in the cognitive processes underlying performance in these academic areas. The results were published by the High/Scope Foundation, a non-profit educational research institution.

Imaging/MRI in Defining Auditory-Motor Processing Network Study

Auditory-motor processing is complex, working through multiple neuronetworks.  This present study provides a preliminary analysis of possible structures involved, specifically: Cingulate Gyrus, Temporal Gyrus, and Superior Frontal Gyrus.  Of note is the significance of bilateral activation for these tasks.  Repetitive auditory-motor training, specifically IM holds promise for neuroplasticity of higher and lower brain centers.

Parkinson's Pilot Study (Full Article pending publication)
This pilot study examined the effect of computer-based motor training activities upon the severity of signs and symptoms in patients with mild or moderate Parkinson’s disease. In this controlled pilot study, computer-directed movement training, both with the IM device and with the control training activities, was found to improve the motor signs of parkinsonism, both on clinical examination (UPDRS part 3) and in objective timed tests (finger tapping and the timed “Up & Go” test). This is the first direct demonstration that these types of exercises can improve Parkinsonism, lending support for the phrase “use it or lose it” that is often quoted to patients. Non-pharmacologic interventions such as these are highly attractive to patients, and they help to foster a sense of higher personal control over the disease. The use of such interventions is generally embraced by patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Golf Study - Journal of General Psychology
Golf Study (January, 2002)
Study concluded that IM Training improves golf accuracy as well as other complex motor activities. Study reinforced findings of other IM studies, and showed IM 'effect' is also applicable to adults.